## An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R – Session Two

This is Session Two of our free on-demand online course based around the book An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R, and it assumes that you have a copy of this workbook in front of you so you can follow the instructions for each exercise provided in it. To find out where to purchase this book, click here. If you would prefer to complete a more detailed distance-learning or in-person version of the course that includes a certificate of attendance and completion and is led by one of the authors of An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R, click here to find out when the next one is scheduled.

The information on this page will take you through the exercises in Chapter Four of the above book. These exercises cover how to make graphs from your data in R. You can find the introduction and the links to other sessions in this course here.

### Creating Graphs from Biological Data using R

Overview: In this session, you will learn how to make five different types of graphs from biological data in R. These are frequency distribution histograms, bar graphs of count data, bar graphs of summary statistics with error bars, box plots and scatter plots. Duration: This session will take around two to three hours to complete.

#### Part One – Introductory Video

This video provides a summary of the introductory information for this chapter you will find on page 46 of An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R. If you cannot see the video in the space below, click here to open a pop-out video viewer for it. Running Time: 2 minutes 3 seconds.

#### Part Two – Getting Started

This video outlines what you need to do to get ready to start the exercises in this chapter. The instructions for doing this can be found on pages 46 to 48 of An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R. If you cannot see the video in the space below, click here to open a pop-out video viewer for it. Running Time: 1 minute 2 seconds.

#### Part Three – Exercise 2.1: How to Make a Frequency Distribution Histogram

This video introduces Exercise 2.1, including what a frequency histogram is and how your data need to be structured in order to be able to make one in R. This information can also be found on page 49 of An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R. If you cannot see the video in the space below, click here to open a pop-out video viewer for it. Running Time: 2 minutes 1 second.

Once you have watched this video, you can work through the instructions for this exercise which you will find on pages 49 to 57 of An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R. These will provide you with all the information you need to successfully complete it.

#### Part Four – Exercise 2.2: How to Make a Bar Graph Based on the Number of Records in Different Categories in a Data Set

This video introduces Exercise 2.2, including what a bar graph is, how they differ from histograms, and how your data need to be structured in order to be able to make a bar graph based on the number of records in different categories or groups in a data set. This information can also be found on page 57 of An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R. If you cannot see the video in the space below click here to open a pop-out video viewer for it. Running Time: 2 minutes 17 seconds.

Once you have watched this video, you can work through the instructions for this exercise which you will find on pages 58 to 68 of An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R. These will provide you with all the information you need to successfully complete it.

#### Part Five – Exercise 2.3: How to Make a Bar Graph of Mean or Median Values with Error Bars

This video introduces Exercise 2.3, including how bar graphs of means or medians differ from bar graphs of count data, why it is important to have error bars on them, what the error bars can show, and how your data need to be structured in order to be able to make such a bar graph in R. This information can also be found on pages 68 and 69 of An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R. If you cannot see the video in the space below click here to open a pop-out video viewer for it. Running Time: 2 minutes 24 seconds.

Once you have watched this video, you can work through the instructions for this exercise which you will find on pages 69 to 80 of An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R. These will provide you with all the information you need to successfully complete it.

#### Part Six – Exercise 2.4: How to Make a Boxplot to Show the Spread of Data within Different Groups in a Data Set

This video introduces Exercise 2.4, including what box plots are, why they are useful in biology, and how your data need to be structured in order to be able to make them in R. This information can also be found on page 81 of An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R. If you cannot see the video in the space below click here to open a pop-out video viewer for it. Running Time: 2 minutes 55 seconds.

Once you have watched this video, you can work through the instructions for this exercise which you will find on pages 82 to 89 of An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R. These will provide you with all the information you need to successfully complete it.

#### Part Seven – Exercise 2.5: How to Make a Scatter Plot in from Biological Data

This video introduces Exercise 2.5, including what scatter plots can be used for in biology, and how your data need to be structured in order to be able to make such a bar graph in R. This information can also be found on page 89 of An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R. If you cannot see the video in the space below click here to open a pop-out video viewer for it. Running Time: 2 minutes 10 seconds.

Once you have watched this video, you can work through the instructions for this exercise which you will find on pages 90 to 101 of An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R. These will provide you with all the information you need to successfully complete it.

#### End of Session Two

Once you have worked through the five exercises in this session, you can click here to move on to Session Three (based on Chapter Five of An Introduction to Basic Statistics for Biologists using R) or you can click here return to the home page for this course.